International Conference on

Perspectives on the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources

Hawaiʻi, Mongolia and Germany

February 11-13, 2015
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa - Honolulu, Hawaiʻi, USA
Location: Center for Korean Studies

View the Conference Papers

Conference Overview

The 2½ day event will explore factors affecting the development of energy and mineral resources in Hawaiʻi, Mongolia and Germany.

Conference Objectives

The conference objective is a dialogue on energy and resource development that is enriched by the different perspectives of the invited participants from each country. These broad themes are emphasized:

  • The Global and Regional Environment, including foreign investment, regional development agreements, conflicting national interests, and security concerns.
  • National and Local Political Dynamics, including national economic conditions, private sector lobbying, partisan divisions and ideological conflicts, the relation between national and local political authorities, and the role played by public utilities.
  • The Influence of Public Participation and Public Opinion, including mechanisms for broad public participation, “Not in my backyard” movements, community giveback processes, and mediaʻs role in advancing or limiting public engagement.

Each of these themes will be considered in relation to two questions:

  • Who benefits from the development of energy and mineral resources, and how fair is it?
  • What role should public institutions play in determining beneficiaries and fairness?

Students, faculty and others interested are invited
to attend; however seating is limited.


Download the complete conference schedule (pdf)

Organizing Committee Members:

Dick Pratt
Chair, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

Tsedev Damiran
National Academy of Management, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Charles Krusekopf
Royal Roads University, Victoria, Canada

Dieter Wagner
Potsdam University, Potsdam, Germany

Organized under tri-lateral agreement between:

University of Hawai'i at Mānoa

University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Hawaii, U.S.A.

National Academy of Management, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

National Academy of Management
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Potsdam University, Potsdam, Germany

Potsdam University
Potsdam, Germany

Jointly sponsored by:

Conference Participants and Focus

ALM, Robert

Robert (Robbie) Alm is the President of the Collaborative Leaders Network, an Omidyar Family Enterprise initiative designed to encourage more productive community dialogue and decision-making. Most recently he was Executive Vice President of Hawaiian Electric Company where his responsibilities included the transition of the Company to a clean energy future. Prior to joining Hawaiian Electric he was Executive Vice President of First Hawaiian Bank, Director of the State of Hawaiʻi Departent of Commerce and Consumer Affairs, and on the staff of U.S. Senator Daniel K. Inouye. He is Chair of the boards of PBS Hawaii and of Enterprise Honolulu and serves on the boards of a number of other community organizations. He has a B.A. in political science from the University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa and a J.D. from the University of Iowa Law School.

Conference Focus: The Hawaiʻi clean and alternative energy initiative in perspective. This looks at what the initiative is as well as how it compares to what is being undertaken in other places. This also reflects on the lessons that can be drawn from the Hawaiʻi initiative on the basis of what has happened to date as well as the issues, opportunities and challenges going forward.


Batsaikhan Nyamdash received his Ph.D. from Trinity College Dublin, Ireland in 2011. He has been a Senior Lecturer at the National Academy of Governance of Mongolia for 3 years where he teaches public economics, mining and energy economics and policy, and research methodology. His research interests are in the economics of the energy sector, security of energy supplies, about which he has published in peer review journals. He has participated in a number of international conferences focused on the energy sector.

Conference Focus: Issues related to the security of Mongoliaʻs energy supply and the societal value of energy security. Recently Mongolia has been exposed to rapid economic growth resulting from expansion of the mining sector. Unfortunately, one of the major pillars supporting rapid economic growth throughout the country, the supply of energy, has not been strengthened since the Soviet era. This results in economic and political pressures. If no action is taken in the near future not only the security of the energy supply, but national security, will be threatened.

BYAMBAJAV, Odgerel  (for conference focus see Dieter Wagner)

Odgerel Byambajav completed her studies in business economics at Potsdam University in 2012. Since then she has been working as a member of the academic staff at Potsdam. This includes participation in an interdisciplinary network on market and technology oriented research at the Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences. She supports science colleagues and students in starting their own business ventures at Potsdam Transfer, the Center for Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Knowledge and Technology Transfer.

BYAMBAJAV, Dalaibuyan

Byambajav Dalaibuyan is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining (CSRM) within the Sustainable Minerals Institute of the University of Queensland, Australia. He obtained his Ph.D. at Hokkaido University, Japan, in 2012. His primary research interests are social and community aspects of resource development, agreement making, and sustainable resource governance. He is a lead researcher on a project examining the application of participation agreements between resource developers and host communities in developing country settings.

Conference Focus: The mining sector needs to be pro-active in responding to broad societal challenges and to gain public support to maintain its long-term place among other sectors, especially in emerging ‘mining countriesʻ like Mongolia where it often competes with traditional socio-economic sectors. This paper examines the challenges faced by the mining sector and companies in obtaining broad based local support or “social license to operate” (SLO) in Mongolia, explores the social, cultural and political conditions that influence company-community relations, and outlines the implications of recent use of negotiated agreements in the mining sector. The paper draws from research conducted in Mongolia in 2013 and 2014. Semi-structured interviews with key informants and secondary sources were used in this paper.

BYAMBAYAR, Yadamsuren

Byambayar Yadamsuren received his Ph.D. from the National Academy of Governance in 2013 and his MPA from the University of Hawaiʻi in 2008. Before becoming Chair of the Department of Public Administration at the National Academy of Governance in December 2013 he was an Associate Professor in the Department of Public Administration. His primary research interests are in local government reform in Mongolia.

Conference Focus: Regulations, reality and beneficiaries related to local revenue from mining development. This highlights two case studies of mining donations in two rural soums. analyzing how these soums spend the money and who benefits. It also shows that local residents have few opportunities to participate in the process of making agreements as well as spending the money from mining companies.


Makena Coffman is an Associate Professor of Urban and Regional Planning at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.  She teaches graduate courses in environmental planning related to climate change mitigation and adaptation in the Asia/Pacific Region, energy and environmental policy, and planning methods. She specializes in economic-environment modeling, holds a B.A. in International Relations from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa. She is a Research Fellow with the University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization.

Conference Focus: This analysis assesses the economic and GHG emissions impacts of a proposed 400-MW wind farm in Hawaii. The project is motivated by Hawaii's high electricity rates and a renewable portfolio standard mandating that 40% of electricity sales be met through renewable sources by the year 2030. We find that the project increases gross state product by $2.2 billion (in net present value) and average annual per capita income by $60 per year. Although there are potentially near-term welfare losses if there are capital cost overruns, fuel costs are a dominant factor. However, without upgrades to Hawaii's electricity grid, there is a trade-off between investment in wind energy projects and solar PV - thus negating potential GHG emissions benefits of the project.


Julian Dierkes is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Asian Research of the University of British Columbia where he also serves as the coordinator of the Program on Inner Asia. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from Princeton University. He is the editor of Change in Democratic Mongolia: Social Relations, Health, Mobile Pastorialism and Mining (Brill, 2012) and of Mongolia Today, a blog focused on contemporary Mongolia ( His research on Mongolia has focused on public policy responses to the countryʻs resource boom. Dr. Dierkes has served as an international election observer in the last four national elections and in 2013 was awarded a Governor General's Medallion for his contributions to building Canada-Mongolia relations.

Conference Focus: The impact of mining and resource development on Mongolian political life and elections. Mining issues are the equivalent of a giant magnet that distorts, bends, and attracts all economic, political, and social developments. The 2000s and 2010s have brought economic development and strong pressure on policy makers to refocus their attention on mining in domestic but also international relations. The prospect of the development of the giant Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine in particular has had a significant impact on electoral politics. While foreign observers frequently refer to resource nationalism, there is no organized movement that could be identified with such an ideology. There also is no general anti- or pro-mining movement/party. With the dominance of personalistic patronage politics, the large parties have also not developed coherent positions on mining in general or on the OT project.


Dolgorsuren Dorj is an associate professor of economics at the National Academy of Governance. She received a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa. Dr. Dolgorsuren uses game theory and experimental economics tools to analyze common pool resources, social dilemmas, public good provisions, social preferences, corruption, and mechanism design. She currently is teaching managerial economics and competition policy. She also has experience working in corporate governance of a state-owned enterprise.

Conference Focus: Coal export dynamics in Mongolia and options for quickly infusing money that can be used for development in Mongolia. Even though the Chinese economy has slowed down, Chinese coal imports have been rising while Mongolian export shares are getting smaller and smaller in contrast to increased Australian shares. There is a need to institute measures that are the most suitable for remedying the situation. These might include railroad logistics and financing for coal development. The issue is made more complicated by current political dynamics and conflicts over who will benefit from increased exports, but these are beyond the scope of the paper.


Jochen Franzke has been a Professor of Public Administration at the University of Potsdam since 2008. Since 2005 has been Director of Study Group IV, "Local Governance and Democracy", of the European Group for Public Administration (EGPA) Since 2012 he has been a member of the board of the Institute of Local Government Studies, University of Potsdam. Between 2008 and 2012 he was an honorary professor at the University of Humanistic Studies and Journalism in Poznań (Poland). Prof. Franzke is member of “The Network of Institutes and Schools of Public Administration in Central and Eastern Europe”. His research interests include the reform of public administration in Germany, particularly at the local and federal states level, the development of local democracy and governance, new forms of citizenʻs participation in planning processes and the transformation public administration in Central and Eastern Europe.

Conference Focus: Stakeholders influences on local decision-making processes. This examines the impacts of the involvement of private companies, such as resource-rich mineral and energy companies, on local stakeholders on sustainable development and good governance in relevant municipalities. Using documents and evaluation reports it will look at the interests and benefits of companies and local authorities, the actors within companies and local authorities, the usage of different coordination tools, and possible differences between public and private mineral and energy companies as local stakeholders.

FUHR, Harald

Harald Fuhr has been a professor of International Politics at the University of Potsdam since 1997. He is trained as an economist and political scientist and is currently Director of several MA programs and coordinator of the Research Training Group on "Wicked Problems, Contested Administrations". Prior to his position in Potsdam he worked as Senior Public Management Specialist at the World Bank in Washington, D.C., and as Assistant Professor at the University of Konstanz, Germany.

Conference Focus: The “paradox of plenty”, or the “resource curse”, that has arisen in both developed and developing countries. While familiar, little is known about how to avoid it or why some countries have been more successful at such avoidance than others. This will address some of the theoretical debates; highlight the importance given to the quality of domestic institutions, including political institutions; reflect on the importance of approaches to resource management, particularly resource governance arrangements; and address the benefits and costs of involving international state and non-state actors in dealing with resource problems at the country level.


Mark Glick is Administrator of the Hawaiʻi State Energy Office, a post he has held since October 2011. As Administrator he leads Hawaiʻi's internationally regarded clean energy program and economic transformation efforts. Mark has been a leader in reducing vehicle emissions in the U.S. and abroad dating back to his service as senior advisor to the Texas Land Commissioner from 1987 to 1991 when he played a key role in passage of amendments to the Texas Clean Air Act and then similar provisions to the federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

Conference Focus: The opportunities and challenges for moving beyond Hawaiʻiʻs already successful clean energy initiative. The Integrated Resources Planning Model used in Hawaiʻi for many years is no longer appropriate because of changes in technology and market dynamics. Hawaiʻi is in a position to move well beyond the 2008 goal of 40% renewable by 2030. Doing that means developing distributed systems and integrated grids as well as a new role for the Islandʻs public utility. It also means exploring a wider range of renewables than solar, and making decisions about the role Liquid Natural Gas will play. What Hawaiʻi does in all of these areas will provide lessons for other places looking for greater energy independence.

KAYA, Maurice
Maurice Kaya serves as Project Director for the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. He currently directs the Energy Excelerator, a clean technology business accelerator that invests in promising business startups in the Hawaii market, a premier test-bed for advanced energy technologies. Mr. Kaya previously served as Chief Technology Officer for the Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. In this position he was the principal advisor on clean energy to the governor of Hawaiʻi. Mr. Kaya currently serves as a board member of Energy Industries, a leading clean energy project integrator in the United States. He has been recognized with awards from the Governor of Hawaiʻi, the Hawaiʻi Legislature, the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the Blue Planet Foundation, and the Hawaii Institute of Public Affairs.

Conference Focus: The unintended affects of government policies created to stimulate natural resource development. The solid policy framework and legislated requirements to achieve Hawaiʻiʻs dramatic goals for natural energy substitution have been the basis for the remarkable transformation now taking place in its energy system. However, without diligent monitoring and mechanisms for adjustment policies intended to have broad benefits can result in disproportionate burden to certain populations, particularly those least able to respond appropriately. Policymakers will be wise to learn from examples of different jurisdictions, including Hawaiʻi, as they design their own frameworks to improve the quality of life for constituents.


Charles Krusekopf has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Washington and an M.A. in China Studies and International Relations from Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. He is Director and Associate Professor in the School of Business at Royal Roads University in Victoria, B.C. He also is the Executive Director of the American Center for Mongolian Studies (ACMS), which he founded in 2002. Dr. Krusekopf has been a visiting professor at the National University and School of Economics and Finance in Mongolia, and the University of Applied Science in Munich. He was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship in 2004.

Conference Focus: Issues related to the Mongolian governmentʻs ownership of mineral resources. Experiences around the world have shown that state owned resources have a poor track record in terms of their efficient and effective development, and often suffer from corruption and political intervention. However Mongolia has shown no signs of changing its basic approach, and is moving ahead with structures designed to ensure a government ownership stake and management role in strategic mineral deposits and related infrastructure. This will offer an overview of Mongolia's experience to date with state ownership of mineral resources, examine the opportunities and conflicts created by this approach, and make suggestions for how Mongolia might structure its ownership of natural resources for the benefit of all Mongolians.

MENDEE, Jargalsaikhan

Mendee Jargalsaikhan is Ph.D. candidate in political science at the University of British Columbia. Prior to this he was a Fellow at the Mongolian Institute for Strategic Studies, and served as Chief of the Foreign Cooperation Department of Mongolia's Ministry of Defense and Defense and Attaché at the Embassy of Mongolia in Washington, D.C. His research focuses on security and democracy of Northeast and Central Asia.

Conference Focus: The impact of domestic and international interests competing for natural resource development on Mongoliaʻs economic development and democratization processes. The rules of the game were clear for everyone during the Cold War. Driven by its historical animosity toward China, Mongoliaʻs foreign and domestic politics were shaped by the overarching geopolitics of Moscow. However, the rules of the game have become more complicated as Mongolia attracts economic interests of great powers. This examines three cases – Oyu Tolgoi, Tavan Tolgoi, and a set of smaller mines – to identify general trends and patterns, the means used to successfully pursue interests, and how all of this impacts local politics and economy.

PRATT, Richard

Dick Pratt is a Professor at the University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa and founder of its Public Administration Program, a leadership program for public service. He currently is the Senior Adviser to the Dean of the College of Social Sciences on International and Community Programs. His teaching and research interests are in institutional change and the reform of public organizations, and effective public leadership. He has worked for many years on projects in Mongolia, Thailand and Japan. Dr. Pratt has a Ph.D. from the University of Hawaiʻi.

ROBERTS, Michael J.

Michael Roberts is Associate Professor in the Department of Economics and Sea Grant at the University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa. Co-Editor for the Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economics and has served on editorial boards for several leading agricultural, environmental and resource economics journals. Dr. Robertsʻ research focuses on agricultural policy, impacts of climate change on agriculture, and commodity pricing. He recently began research on energy efficiency standards and electricity pricing, and hopes to do some work on water demand and pricing. Previously he was an Assistant and Associate Professor at North Carolina State University from Fall 2008 through Spring 2012. Before that I worked for USDAʻs Economic Research Service. I grew up in California, went to UCSD to swim and study, He holds an MS from Montana State University and an MA in Statistics and Ph.D. in Agricultural and Resource Economics at the University of California at Berkeley. Prior to his current position he was on the faculty of North Carolina State University.

Conference Focus: Energy pricing and cost data for Oʻahu's electric grid. This is an analysis that will look at: (a) how much generation costs have changed; (b) how much fixed costs and HECO returns have changed; and (c) how consumersʻ demand has changed in response to high prices and other incentive programs. It may include how variable pricing could reduce costs while accommodating more renewables.


Tim Stuchtey studied economics at the University of Munster and completed his doctoral degree at the Technische Universität Berlin in the field of economic and infrastructure policy. He worked as personal advisor to the president of the Technische Universität before transferring to the economic policy office of the German Employers Association. In 2001 he moved to the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin where became chief of staff of the office of the president. There he established the Humboldt Institution on Transatlantic Issues (HITI), a network of scholars working in the field of German-American relations. Beginning in 2007 he was Senior Fellow and Program Director Business and Economics of the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies (AICGS) at Johns Hopkins University in Washington, D.C. In 2010 he became Executive Director of the Brandenburg Institute for Society and Security in Potsdam that focuses on economic and social science aspects in homeland security.

Conference Focus: The dynamics of Germanyʻs energy policies and energy security in light of current domestic and external geopolitical developments. Part one is an overview of Germanyʻs current energy mix (oil, gas, coal, nuclear, renewable) and raw material imports. Suppliers, supply routes and demand dynamics will be identified. The second part explores the underlying reasons for Germanyʻs current energy policies and how recent international events, especially the Russian aggression against the Ukraine, might impact future strategies to secure energy resources and raw materials.


Terry Surles has had an extensive career in energy and environmental management and has held numerous advising and consulting positions. He has been the Lead for Sustainable Energy and Environmental Solutions at the University of Hawaiʻi and serving as Senior Advisor to the California Institute for Energy and Environmental Solutions. He also is Senior Advisor to the California Institute for Energy and Environment. Prior positions include Vice President for the Desert Research Institute and Technology Integration Policy Analysis Program Manager at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute focusing on grid integration. Dr. Surles received his Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry from Michigan State University. He work includes more than 250 publications, technical reports, and presentations. He has served on a number of committees, including appointments with the National Academy of Sciences. He continues that service for government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Conference Focus: The development of energy resources and its impacts on the international marketplace. Mongolia is known to have a wealth of fossil energy sources, such as coal. How these will be developed remains to be seen in the light of concerns over climate change (a negative driver) and energy security (a positive driver). Mongolia must compete with other countries, including the United States, in terms of export competition. Similar concerns will be true for natural gas development and for the recovery of petroleum resources. Of additional interest is the need for the exploration and development of rare earth resources. Currently, China controls most of the worldʻs market for these minerals that are critical for the further development of energy efficient and renewable energy systems.

TSEDEV, Damiran

Tsedev Damiran is currently Dean of the School of Public Affairs and Management, National Academy of Governance. Prior to this he served in various positions at the Academy, including Vice Rector, Head of the Training Division, and Director of the Public Administration Program. His publications have appeared in journals such as The Asia Pacific Journals of Public Administration. His current research interests focus on democratization, post-Communist transition and transitional governance. He holds a Ph.D. from Ural State University in Russia.

WAGNER, Dieter

Dieter Wagner, University of Potsdam, was formerly the Director of Potsdam Transfer, Vice President for Knowledge and Technology Transfer, dean of Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences and Professor of Management. His current research focuses on entrepreneurship and technology transfer, flexibility in human resource systems, and entrepreneurship culture and entrepreneurial universities.

Conference Focus: What can be learned in the energy and resource development arenas from German programs to innovate structures in government and industry. Germany shows an interesting approach to developing innovative-driven structures. For over 15 years the goal has been to improve the entrepreneurial environment at universities and non-university research institutions as well as private companies in order to change mind-sets, develop innovation culture and to increase the number and success of innovative and technology-driven startups. Other countries, including Mongolia, can learn what steps are needed to set up innovational and entrepreneurial structures in the public and private sectors, taking into account capacity building and human resource development.

YONAN Jr., Alan (for focus see Mark Glick)

Alan Yonan, Jr. is the communications officer for the Hawaiʻi State Energy Office, a position he has held since May 2014. As communications officer he leads the communications strategy and serves as the public information officer for the State Energy Office, a division of the state's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. Before joining the Energy Office, Yonan worked as a journalist for 30 years in Honolulu, Singapore, Washington D.C. and Chicago. Prior to his current position he was with the Honolulu Star-Advertiser, where he covered energy and economics.